Some notes about DDD



  • Use @dataclass(frozen=True) for value objects
  • For entities (objects with long lived identity, aka Reference Objects) use a normal class and implement __eq__ and __hash__
  • Don’t use FooBuilder, BarManager classes, just functions


  • Use Protocol instead of abc.
  • Leave .commit() as a responsibility for the caller.
  • For simple cases this abstraction is unnecessary, you can just stick with ORMs.
  • Create an in-memory FakeRepository for testing.


Some people consider “monkeypatching” a code smell and prefer using Fakes.


  • Pass the repository as a parameter to service-layer functions and use primitives instead of Domain objects.
  • Leave endpoints as a thin wrapper for parsing and returning HTTP responses, but you can combine controller/views if it is just a web app.
  • Write tests for the service layer.

Unit of Work

  • Use context manager and initialize the repository on __enter__.
  • Explicit commit is recommended for easier state flushing.
  • Add uow to the service layer.

Aggregates and Consistency Boundaries

An AGGREGATE is a cluster of associated objects that we treat as a unit for the purpose of data changes.

  • Configure version counters for Optimistic Concurrency Control.
  • Retry on conflict.
  • The only repository that should be used is the one for the aggregate.

Part 1:

Events and Message Bus

  • To avoid violating the single responsibility principle, use events instead of commands.
  • A message bus is a dict that maps event types to a list of handlers.
  • Rethink API calls as capturing events.
  • Services will have only 2 params: the event and the uow.


If at first you don’t succeed, retry the operation with an exponentially increasing back-off period.

  • Commands are usually imperative verbs and expect a response.
  • Events are usually past-tense verbs and broadcasted.

Event-Driven Architecture

  • Use an external message broker (redis, kafka, rabbitmq).
  • Two services should accept eventual consistency between them.
  • Avoid the Distributed Big Ball of Mud, think in terms of verbs / business processes with asynchronous communication.

Command-Query Responsibility Separation (CQRS)

  • Create thin views for our data: via raw SQL?? (repository are clunky and ORMs slow).

Dependency Injection (DI)

  • Dependency Injection vs Monkeypatching.

Part 2: