Overview of the CP-SAT solver from Google OR-Tools

## References:

- Laurent Perron and FrΓ©dΓ©ric Didier, CPAIOR 2020: https://youtu.be/lmy1ddn4cyw
- Peter J. Stuckey, Search is Dead: https://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/pstuckey/PPDP2013.pdf

## Model Building

The first step is building the model using the `CPModel`

class. This class is actually a **wrapper** around the cp_model protobuf.

Let’s see an example (source):

```
from ortools.sat.python import cp_model
"""Minimal CP-SAT example to showcase calling the solver."""
# Creates the model.
# [START model]
model = cp_model.CpModel()
# [END model]
# Creates the variables.
# [START variables]
num_vals = 3
x = model.NewIntVar(0, num_vals - 1, 'x')
y = model.NewIntVar(0, num_vals - 1, 'y')
z = model.NewIntVar(0, num_vals - 1, 'z')
# [END variables]
# Creates the constraints.
# [START constraints]
model.Add(x != y)
# [END constraints]
# Creates a solver and solves the model.
# [START solve]
solver = cp_model.CpSolver()
status = solver.Solve(model)
# [END solve]
if status == cp_model.FEASIBLE:
print('x = %i' % solver.Value(x))
print('y = %i' % solver.Value(y))
print('z = %i' % solver.Value(z))
```

This model creates the following proto `print(str(model))`

:

```
variables {
name: "x"
domain: 0
domain: 2
}
variables {
name: "y"
domain: 0
domain: 2
}
variables {
name: "z"
domain: 0
domain: 2
}
constraints {
linear {
vars: 1
vars: 0
coeffs: -1
coeffs: 1
domain: -9223372036854775808
domain: -1
domain: 1
domain: 9223372036854775807
}
}
```

**Note**: int64 is [-9223372036854775808, 9223372036854775807]

## Presolve Loop

First stage: We will process all active constraints until a fix point is reached. During this stage:

- Variable will never be deleted, but their domain will be reduced.
- Constraint will never be deleted (they will be marked as empty if needed).
- New variables and new constraints can be added after the existing ones.
- Constraints are added only when needed to the mapping_problem if they are needed during the postsolve.
Second stage:

- All the variables domain will be copied to the mapping_model.
- Everything will be remapped so that only the variables appearing in some constraints will be kept and their index will be in [0, num_new_variables). - source

- Presolve: Domain reduction, constraint simplification/rewrite
- Constraint expansion/decomposition: Similar to Minizinc -> Flatzinc (element constraint, table, automaton, inverse, product, modulo, reservoir)
- Detect variable equivalence and affine relations.
- Substitute by canonical representation.
- Probing: Fix variables and see what is propagated.

This produces 2 new models, the **inner model** that will be solved and a **channeling model** used to populate the solution of the **initial model**. - source

## Solver

The CP-SAT solver uses a

lazy clause generationsolver on top of anSATsolver. The best description is a presentation fromPeter Stuckeycalled Search is Dead - Laurent Perron

In Lazy clause generation (LCG), integer variables are **encoded as booleans**, ortools creates 2 booleans for each variable and value:

- var == value
- var <= value

Note: var >= value (represented as ![x <= value-1])

- (var == value) <=> (var >= value) and (var <= value)
- (var <= value) => (var <= value+1)

Propagation is clause generation:

- e.g. [x <= 2] and x >= y means that [y <= 2]
- clause [x <= 2] => [y <= 2]

## Linear relaxation

TODO

## Default search (single thread)

VSIDS on the Boolean problem, when it reaches a fixed point, it asks the heuristic to select an integer variable, a value and a braching direction.

## Multithreading

The solver uses the first

Xthreads to generic methods, and use all the remaining ones on LNS (Large Neighborhood Search). -Laurent Perron